This paper discusses the potentials of renewable energy as an additional generation source to meet the energy demand of the Nigerian populace. It focuses on the country’s energy crisis and how its natural resources can be harnessed to meet the nation’s energy demand while reducing global pollution. An analysis of projected energy capacities from the abundant renewable energy resources and how much of these resources are required to be harnessed in the proposed energy mix – to achieve over 60,000 MW of power – is presented.
The main objective of this study was to review the various policies and strategies promoting renewable energy development around the world. The success and failures of each country and regions were examined through a case study so as to learn some valuable lessons and derive useful implications for the development of renewable energy in Nigeria. The study initially reviewed the current renewable energy policies and identified the barriers to the development of renewable energy technology in Nigeria. The lessons from the case study were classified into support mechanisms which include; capital, fiscal, tax incentives, legislative, political, technological and environmental support. The lessons from case study were used to develop implications in addressing the development of renewable energy technologies through effective policies and strategies in Nigeria. Furthermore, some future perspectives of renewable energy development in Nigeria were discussed. This study intends to support the Nigerian government and policymakers in decision making and policy formulation on the short-, medium- and long-term.
Integrating Green Fiscal Reforms Into the Agricultural Transformation Agenda: Panacea for Boosting Soil Enrichment and Water Conservation for Sustainable Food Production in Nigeria (2015)
Nigeria had a booming agricultural industry and prominent world market shares in many of its commodities at independence. With the continuous decline in these, the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) has been floated to promote twelve commodities in production along their value chains. The cultivation methods and other activities within the nodes of the value chains do not however specify green growth strategy promoted by green fiscal reform policies. This paper valued the environmental services loss resulting from deforestation associated with “slash and burn” arable crop expansion and the benefits of “green grabbing” – the deliberate appropriation of nature in the ATA. Results showed that profitability in food crop production without green fiscal reforms was higher as compared to when it was considered. This will encourage the food crop farmers to engage in actions that are inimical to environmental sustainability in the ATA. The paper therefore concludes that the ATA cannot be sustainable under the current “business as usual” practice of “slash and burn” agriculture and stressed the urgent need to integrate green fiscal reform policies into the agenda.
In Nigeria, most solar PV projects are designed for street lighting, water pumping and general stand-alone/minigrid rural electrification. However, several solar PV projects being installed in various parts of the country fail to meet the minimum life-span due to a number of limiting factors. These include, poor or improper fundamental design, use of sub-standard components, adoption of poor installation procedure by inexperienced personnel, bad construction/civil works among other factors. This has become a problem in the country and many are beginning to feel disgusted with solar PV projects as the heavy investments in such projects do not seem to be commensurate with their resulting performance. This paper therefore presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of existing systems and identifies the limiting factors with specific recommendations for improvement. It concluded that if power projects are designed and executed properly by experienced technical experts, using the appropriate components and best technical procedures, standard PV projects with maximum performance output could be achieved in Nigeria.
Climate change is a global issue that is not evenly distributed in causes and effects. While the industrialized nations are the major causes of climate change, the effects of climate change hardest hit the developing nations. The whole of sub Saharan Africa account for less than 2 percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The developed countries with greater historical responsibility for climate change and a greater capacity to act should take the lead in dealing with climate change. On the other hand, the emerging economies and developing economies should have mitigation measures in place for their own emissions. The domestic energy sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in Nigeria and Uganda, with the effects of climate change quite visibly seen in both countries. This paper compares the climate change impacts, policies, governance structures and method of approach to climate change in both countries and puts forth recommendations on how to mitigate and adapt to climate change in the domestic energy sector.
In this paper, the role of renewable energy technologies in meeting Nigeria’s energy challenges is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the factors affecting developments in the renewable energy sector, and efforts made to ensure capacity building for renewable energy, stimulation of the private sector, developing the markets for renewable energy, obtaining the necessary finance for renewable energy projects and the assistance of multilateral institutions in advancing renewable energy technologies in the country.
This book, prepared by the World Bank, provides a comprehensive overview of the likely impacts of climate change on sectors that are strategic for the growth of Nigeria’s economy, such as agriculture, livestock, and water resource management, while highlighting the promising opportunities to build resilience. It proposes 10 practical short-term priority actions, as well as complementary longer-term initiatives and methodological innovations.
Nigeria has joined the league of countries seeking for alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuel has emerged as a credible alternative and blend stock for the dwindling petroleum resources. Nigeria is committed to blending biodiesel with petrodiesel up to 20%. This paper evaluates the challenge of biodiesel production from oil palm feedstock in Nigeria. The study found that biodiesel production in Nigeria could be challenged by feedstock supply shortages, poor quality of the feedstock, technological challenges and poor policy framework. Oil palm in Nigeria is mostly processed by smallholders, producing oils of low quality due to high free fatty acid (FFA), moisture and impurities above limits for biodiesel production. Pretreatment techniques, which are used to upgrade the oil, could increase the cost of the resultant biodiesel. Because of the poor quality of the feedstock, enzymatic transesterification is a more feasible method for biodiesel production. The paper concludes by suggesting the use of inedible oil as feedstock, production of lipase for enzymatic transesterification and upgrading the Nigerian policy and incentives.
This paper evaluates small hydropower (SHP) development and examines the current situation in Nigeria with respect to the established policies and Energy Power Sector Reform (EPSR) Act 2005. Hydropower sector witnessed about 360% growth between 1971 and 2005 and yet only about 5% of the vast small hydropower (SHP) potential is tapped by the few plants built between 1923 and 1964. Operating and maintenance costs are in favor of SHP development in the country, being the lowest when compared with the situation in European countries. The Nigerian Government has taken steps to diversify energy sources in order to promote renewable energy development by encouraging private investments in the energy sector through reforms, but this may not be adequate as there remain barriers against SHP development in the country. The paper concludes that government must incorporate subsidies, feed-in-tariffs, and framework for Price Purchase Agreements (PPA) into the policies in order to further promote renewable energy and attract both indigenous and foreign investments for quick adoption and rapid expansion of SHP technologies.